1.  Introduction


There have been reductions in the number and severity of marine incidents in the past few decades. This can be partly attributed to improved design of equipment, improved safety management systems, improved regulations and best practices. OCIMF aspires to achieve further improvement in safety and environmental protection in the marine industryby considering human factors in everything we do.


Thispurpose of this paper is to outline how OCIMF will integrate Human Factors into its activitiesand  make progress on human factors in our industry.It includes:


•    A set of principles that guide OCIMF’sactions on human factors

•    An overall goal for OCIMF

•    A framework to understand how human factors issues impact operations

•    Opportunities to take action





2.  About Human Factors


Many industry sectors attribute human involvement to around 80% of incidents. This might give the impression that people cause incidents. However, 80-90% of the time it is found that mistakes, actions and decisions are themselves the result of the way the workplace is set up; how work is designed,equipment and control measures, and how leaders influence the culture in an organisation.

▲许多行业认为约80%的事故是人为因素造成的。这可能会造成所有事故都人为因素的印象。然而,80% -90%的情况下,人们发现错误、行动和决定本身就是工作场所建立方式的结果;如何设计工作、设备和控制措施,以及领导者如何影响组织中的文化。

Human factors are the physical, psychological and social characteristics that affect human interaction with plant and processes.


It is the people on our ships and in our operations and support teams who make safety work.  However, human error still occurs as a result of humans interacting with latent conditionsand unhelpful systems .  When we tackle these, we can reduceincidents and improve reliability and productivity. 


3.  Guiding Principles


These principles describe our approach to human factors, and are based on those from oil and gas, aviation and nuclear industries.  .  We use the principles as a simple script to talk about human factors, and as aguide for the improvements we make in OCIMF activities.


People will make mistakes 


People’s actions are rarely malicious and usually make sense to them at the time


Mistakes are typically due to conditions and systems that make work difficult


Understanding the conditions in which mistakes happen helps us prevent or correct them


People know the most about their work and are key to any solution


Plant, tools and activities can be designed to reduce mistakes and manage risk better 


Leaders help shape the conditions that influence what people do


It matters how leaders respond when things go wrong.  Take the opportunity to learn 


4.  TheStrategy


Our goal


Our goal is to materially reduce risk to crew, ships and terminals, by systemically addressing the systems and latent conditions that influence errors, actions and decisions.




Our plan


Ourapproachconsists of three key elements, i.e.risk priorities, a framework for understanding the impact ofhuman factors onrisk management and opportunities for action.


Risk priorities: we will focus our efforts and resources on the most significant risks in the industry as defined by OCIMF e.g. loss of primary containment, fatality/serious injury.


Framework: we will understand how human factors effects risk managementthrough the five pillarsof human factors that are relevant to the marine industry.  The pillars will be used as the basic structure to:


•    Provide Operators (and others) with processes and guidanceallowing them toanalyse and develop controls for their own situation


•    Analyse accidents and data tounderstandthe human factors issuesand latent conditions that contribute to failureof a pillar


•    Identify and recommendgood practice to prevent or mitigate any failureof a pillar


•    Explain and educatehuman factors issues


The following are some example topics under the pillars of the framework:


  Example topics falling under this pillar


Leading and shaping the culture you want

▲领导和塑造你想要的文化    •

    The role of latent and organisational conditions in accidents


•    How leadership shapes culture


•    Diverse cultures


•    Industry-wide culture


•    Workplace influence on crewwell being


•    People as a solution, not a problem


•    Listening to the workforce


•    Responding when things go wrong


Well-executed tasks and procedures


 •    Designing tasks to reduce error


•    Effective control of work


•    Effective procedures


•    The effectiveness of regulations


•    Training and skill building


•    Work as we imagine it, and as it really is


•    Taking human factors into account in risk assessments


•    Manning and Workload management


•    Selection and capability


•    Fatigue


Well-designed Equipment and controls


 •    Human–centred design of bridge, engine room, cargo, deck and terminal equipment


•    Human-machine interfaces


•    The impact of automation and increased complexity


Skills to respond to emerging situations


 •    Building bridge, engine room and crew skills


•    Situationalawareness and recovery


•    Team communications


Learning before and after things go wrong


 •    Effective human factors Investigation


•    Learning from the people who do the task,to get ahead of incidents


Opportunities for action: we will take the followingstrategic actionson human factors to reduce risk in the marine industry:


1.  Capability: we will aim to build human factors capability in OCIMF and the industry by a combination of:


•    Providing publications and training


•    A development pathway to build capability across the industry


2.  Integration:we will build human factors perspectives into OCIMF’s high impact risk-related priority areas such as:


•    Programmes:  integrating human factors in all aspects of OCIMF inspection and self assessment programmes,e.g. SIRE, OVID and TMSA


Advocacy: we will engage and collaborate with IMO and other industry organisations, institutions and regulatory bodies on key human factors issues, e.g.improving quality of marine incident investigations


编译:傅恒星 赵翔




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